Lactofermented Annurca Apple Puree as a Functional Food Indicated for the Control of Plasma Lipid and Oxidative Amine Levels: Results from a Randomised Clinical Trial
University of Naples Federico II, Hospital Cardarelli, Coop. Samnium Medica, UCCP
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are preferential targets of healthy diet and preventive medicine partially through strategies to improve lipid profile and counteract oxidative metabolites. Ninety individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were randomized (1:1:1 ratio) to three arms, according to a four-week run-in, eight-week intervention, and four-week follow up study, testing the effects of a lactofermented Annurca apple puree (lfAAP), compared to unfermented apple puree (AAP) or probiotic alone (LAB) on plasma lipid profile and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels. By comparing the treatments, data indicated for the subjects tested with lfAAP a higher variation of the following serum parameters, in respect to the other treatment groups: high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), +61.8% (p = 0.0095); and TMAO levels, −63.1% (p = 0.0042). The present study would suggest lfAAP as an effective functional food for beneficial control of plasma HDL-C and TMAO levels.
HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis using the Advion expression® Compact Mass Spectrometer (CMS) was used to quantify TMAO in blood samples.